Tina Zintl University of Tubingen Academia Tina Zintl, University of Tubingen, Political Science Department, Department Member Studies International Relations, Authoritarian regimes, and Comparative Politics. Bo azii niversitesi Siyaset Bilimi ve Uluslararas AMERICAN STUDIES CERTIFICATE PROGRAM COURSES OFFERED BY THE DEPARTMENT POLS American Politics and Society Through Literature ECTS Bo azii University Department of Political Science and AMERICAN STUDIES CERTIFICATE PROGRAM COURSES OFFERED BY THE DEPARTMENT POLS American Politics and Society Through Literature ECTS Democracy and Dictatorship in Central Asia Political The fall of communism in Europe and the demise of the Soviet Union were met with jubilation and confidence amid the rapid democratization of the former communist states A decade later, however, the democratization euphoria was replaced with the growing concerns over the retreat of democracy as Bashar al Assad Bashar Hafez al Assad was born in Damascus on September , the second oldest son of Anisa Makhlouf and Hafez al Assad Al Assad in Arabic means the Lion Assad s paternal grandfather, Ali Sulayman al Assad, had managed to change his status from peasant to minor notable and, to reflect this, in he had changed the family name from Wahsh meaning Savage to Al Assad. Authoritarianism Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability and rule of law under an authoritarian regime Authoritarian regimes can be autocratic with power concentrated in one person or it can be spread out between multiple officials and . . Authoritarianism Encyclopdia Britannica authoritarianism, principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action.